The inferences derived from various clinical trials and studies suggest that the people with diabetes have an increased incidence of periodontal disease. The reasons why people with diabetes are more likely to suffer from periodontal disease are not known. However, there are certain factors which are considered as contributing causes:
1. People with diabetes have an impaired immune system thereby increasing the risk of periodontal disease.
2. Diabetic persons are usually obese and the excess body fat may cause production of chemicals which make the gums more prone to develop periodontal disease.
3. In diabetes the blood vessels are thickened and damaged which impairs the flow of blood to the gums and teeth, making them more likely to experience gum disease.
4. As the process of healing in diabetic people is also impaired, the gums are also affected and the disease worsens.
5. Research has proven that smoking increases the risk of periodontal disease many times in diabetic persons. Therefore, the management of diabetic people must include strong recommendations to quit smoking.
6. It has been noted that due to poor diabetic control the mouth tends to secrete high glucose levels which encourages bacterial growth and thus there are more chances of the development of periodontal disease.
7. Recent investigations have suggested that periodontal disease influences the control of diabetes.