Diabetes is a metabolic disease that results in high blood sugar levels. If you have diabetes, you are susceptible to a number of related conditions, including an increased risk of oral health problems. Understanding this increased risk can help you stave off oral disease and keep your teeth healthy.

Common Conditions among Patients with Diabetes

Gum Disease

One of the most common oral complications found in patients with diabetes is gum disease. There are two types of gum disease: gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis is the inflammation of gum tissue. As the disease progresses it can cause the gums to bleed, appear red and puffy and become painful or tender. The gums pull away from the teeth, creating pockets where plaque and bacteria accumulate. If your gums bleed when you gently brush them with a soft toothbrush, you may have gingivitis.

When gingivitis is left untreated, it develops into periodontitis. At this stage, the infection causes damage to the jawbone and ligaments that support the teeth, making them loose. The gum tissue further recedes, leading to exposed nerve endings that can make the teeth very sensitive. If you have loose teeth that are extremely sensitive, you may be suffering from periodontitis.

There are several reasons why a person with diabetes has an increased risk of gum disease. If you are diabetic, your saliva may contain increased amounts of sugar. This extra sugar makes it easier for bacteria to thrive inside your mouth. When your diabetes is poorly controlled, you are even more susceptible to these bacteria, because you heal more slowly. People with diabetes are also prone to dry mouth. Dry mouth can irritate the gums. The lack of saliva to wash away bacteria allows them to set into the irritated gum tissue, promoting further gum disease.


Thrush is a fungal infection common in people with diabetes. It presents as white sores on the mouth and tongue. Underneath the white patches, you see red tissue that bleeds easily. People with diabetes are more susceptible to thrust because they frequently take antibiotics. Your mouth maintains a natural balance of bacteria and fungus. If antibiotics kill too many bacteria, the fungus is able multiply more easily, leading to fungal infection. High blood sugar also contributes to the spread of thrush, because the fungi feed off of the extra sugar.

Tooth Decay

The presence of high levels of sugar in the saliva can also promote tooth decay. The bacteria in the mouth turn sugar into acid. The increased acidity damages the enamel that protects your teeth from decay. The presence of gum disease exacerbates this problem, as pockets between the gums and teeth house more plaque and bacteria. Tooth decay that is left untreated causes significant pain and can even lead to oral abscesses.


Preventing Oral Health Issues

Control Your Diabetes

All of these conditions are most common in individuals with uncontrolled diabetes. If sugar levels are kept in check, you are less likely to have oral health problems. Follow all of your doctor’s orders. Take medications as prescribed. Avoid sugary foods and simple carbohydrates that can raise your blood sugar levels. Drink plenty of water to combat dry mouth.

Practice Good Oral Hygiene

Everyone needs to practice good oral hygiene, but if you have diabetes, the increased risk for oral disease makes it especially important.

  • Brush your teeth at least twice a day.
  • Brush your teeth after any meals.
  • Avoid smoking.
  • Avoid acidic foods and beverages, like coffee.
  • If you do smoke or drink coffee, brush your teeth immediately afterwards.
  • Floss every day.
  • Visit your dentist at least twice a year for regular cleanings.
  • Use a mouthwash recommended by your dentist.
  • If you wear dentures, take them out and clean them every day.
  • If you notice any problems, make an appointment to see your dentist as soon as possible.

Just because you are diabetic doesn’t mean you have to resign yourself to suffering from oral health issues and losing your teeth. Take precautions to prevent illness; and, know the signs of illness so that you can get help before it is too late.

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Amalgam Fillings

When your dentist finds tooth decay, to prevent pain and further decay, you need to have the decay removed. Removing the decay leaves a void in your tooth that must be filled. There are several filling options available; one of the more common but also more controversial options is an amalgam filling.

An amalgam filling is an alloy made from mercury and other metals, such as copper, silver and tin. Your dentist prepares an amalgam filling by mixing liquid mercury with a powder containing the other metal components. Millions of dental patients in the United Kingdom receive amalgam fillings every year.

There are several advantages to amalgam fillings. Amalgam fillings are relatively inexpensive when compared to other filling options. The dental work can be completed in just one visit. The fillings are very strong, which is especially important for back teeth that must withstand extreme bite forces. These advantages are why amalgam fillings are among the most popular options.

Amalgam fillings also have several disadvantages. Following placement, amalgam fillings can cause extreme hot and cold sensitivity. This should subside in a few weeks; if it doesn’t, you need to return to your dentist. In rare cases, some patients may develop an allergy to the mercury or one of the other metals in the amalgam compound. If you notice an itchy skin rash following placement, you may need to have the filling replaced with a different material. Pregnant women should not get amalgam fillings, as mercury passes through the placenta barrier and can harm the fetus. The most common complaint about amalgam fillings is the unattractive appearance. The silver color may make you feel less confident about your smile and may show in the back teeth when you laugh.

The controversy surrounding amalgams has to do with the mercury content. When chewing, the amalgam releases small amounts of mercury vapor that you then inhale. Health agencies say that the mercury content is too low to harm you. People opposed to amalgams, however, believe that the potential side effects have not been studied thoroughly enough. Amalgams have been in use for over a hundred years; and, most studies suggest that the only real danger is to your dentist, who handles the liquid mercury on a regular basis.

If you are concerned about the possible disadvantages associated with amalgam fillings, talk to your dentist about it. Given all of the information about risks, costs and aesthetics you can make the best decision for your long-term health and comfort.

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Distracting yourself

Whether it’s listening to your favorite music or reading a good book, distracting yourself while you’re heading toward the dental office, waiting outside or even when having a regular dental examination can help you fight dental phobia.  You may consider taking your iPod with you or bringing something that’ll keep you busy and entertained on your way to the dental office or during those waiting hours. These things will keep your mind from thinking about those injections or dental drills. Although distracting yourself is important to fight those fears at the dental office, it doesn’t mean that you can distract or annoy other people by those loud cell phone conversations or play loud music or video games.

Using relaxation techniques

Relaxation is an extremely important element in terms of fighting stress and anxiety of any kind. Breathing deeply or thinking only about things that make you happy will keep your mind from brooding about the pain or creepy feeling you might have at the dental office.

Eating before your dental visit

Many people have this bad habit of coming to the dental office with an empty stomach.  While you may find it difficult to eat something when you’re stressed or worried, you can’t ignore the fact that having the stomach twist and roll the whole time will only make your ex

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For those chewing-gum lovers out there, here’s an interesting piece of good news. Chewing sugar-free gum can actually play an important role in improving your oral health. Surprisingly, sugar-free gum can contribute toward reduction in plaque formation in addition to having a positive impact on a person’s oral hygiene as well as dental care.  Did you know that chewing sugar-free gum can play an important role in remineralizing the tooth surface while preventing dental caries?

Typically, saliva is secreted at a constant rate at around 500ml per day. However, this saliva can be stimulated. If you chew a sugar free gum, the salivary flow rate can be increased by a factor of ten. Apart from clearing your mouth from plaque-forming carbohydrates, this saliva has increased amounts of remineralizing ions as well as bicarbonate for buffering the harmful acids developed from plaque. Using sugar free gum after eating foods can be very helpful in promoting enamel lesions’ remineralization along with reducing the development of caries by around forty percent. Furthermore, this stimulated saliva actually has an increased remineralizing effect on the demineralised enamel.


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Inflammation of the dental pulp can lead to pain in the teeth. Dental pulp is characterized by a soft tissue structure composed of nerves, blood vessels and connective tissues. The tooth pulp has no function in a completely developed tooth, but it might be the cause of toothache.

Pulpitis can be classified into two forms, namely; reversible and irreversible pulpitis.

A mild inflammation can cause reversible pulpitis, which might resolve before causing infection. Irreversible pulpitis is severe and can cause tooth abscess and pulp necrosis.

Germs in the tooth decay causes tooth pulp inflammation. People experiencing cavities are likely to develop reversible pulpitis, due to which the teeth become sensitive to hot, sweet and cold. Pulpitis occurs when the root surface gets exposed as a result of gum recession.

Reversible pulpitis causes the teeth to become sensitive and, if left untreated, this extended sensitivity can lead to irreversible pulpitis. People experiencing irreversible pulpitis suffer from pain on biting.

Make sure to consult a highly skilled dental professional if you experience sensitive teeth. Normally, canal therapy is recommended by dentists to treat irreversible pulpitis.

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A number of lifestyle factors as well as an unhealthy diet can be damaging for your oral health. Here are some of the factors that can lead to a poor oral health:


We all know that smoking is a bad habit that is responsible for causing various health conditions. Smoking pipes, cigarettes and cigars can cause gum infections, tooth decay, as well as oral cancer. 

Sugar consumption:

Eating foods or drinking beverages that have a high sugar content can cause infections in the gums, cavities and might even lead to tooth decay. Due to sugar consumption, bacteria easily attack the gums and teeth, leading to formation of plaque on your teeth. If this plaque isn’t removed, it will harden to form tartar that can only be scraped off your teeth by an experienced dentist. 

Alcohol Consumption:

Drinking alcohol adds to dental health issues as it can lead to a dry mouth, which allows germs to attack your gums and teeth. This causes various dental health conditions. 


There are some medications, like certain antibiotics that can cause teeth staining. 

Gain or Loss in Weight:

Gain or loss in your weight can negatively affect the way your dentures fit in your mouth. To maintain a proper dental health, it is extremely important to keep your weight in check. A diet rich in high-fibre fruits and veggies can combat tooth decay as well as maintain a healthy weight.



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Adhesive dentistry is a branch of dentistry that is concerned with adhesion or bonding of the adhesive material to the natural substance of teeth such as the enamel and the dentin. Adhesive dentistry is a science that studies the strength and the nature of the adhesion to the hard tissues of the mouth. It also deals with the properties of adhesive materials, causes and mechanisms of failure of the bonds, clinical techniques for bonding and new applications for bonding for instance, bonding to the soft tissue.

Adhesive techniques have penetrated almost all fields of dentistry but a gap still remains between the accepted treatment modes and what is carried out in daily practice. New methods are beneficial for the dentition but dental practitioners hesitate to this change as they need more data, more information and argument.

The new applications and materials that are used in adhesion have transformed the delivery of dentistry. The techniques used in bonding have been restricted to the tooth hard tissue, the enamel and also the dentin. These have obvious applications in operative and preventive dentistry and also in esthetic and pediatric dentistry, prosthodontics and orthodontics. Recent developments of adhesive techniques for soft tissues and slow – releasing agents expand applications to periodontics as well as oral surgery. Adhesive dentistry allows dentists to treat teeth in the most conservative fashion.  Bonded restorative materials do not only replace missing tooth structures due to tooth injuries or decay but they also strengthen and support the remaining tooth structure without removing the healthy tissues.

Over the years, dental adhesives have evolved and improved their systems. The development of products has improved not only the physical properties but also the convenience. The universal adhesives bond to all dental substrates, which include the enamel, dentin, metal, porcelain, ceramic and zirconia, with a single application. Dental adhesives can be used with light cure self cure and dual- cure materials.

Most of the research conducted in adhesive dentistry is aimed at simplifying clinical protocol. Developments are still progressing to eliminate the ambiguity that is associated with the wet bonding technique. The adhesive technology provides an expanded treatment option that can create confidence in the techniques used in restorations. Refinements will still be conducted to improve techniques and materials used in adhesive dentistry.

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Children who have certain disabilities frequently experience dental issues like having an increased risk of developing gum disease or experiencing problems like having missing teeth.There are some health conditions that need particular dental care like cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, Down syndrome, hearing impairments or learning problems.


So, why are special kids at risk of developing dental problems?


  • Most of the rimes, children with special needs have to consume drugs or medicines that may affect their dental health.
  • In some cases, these kids are advised to have a soft diet, which may become a cause of dental health concerns.
  • There are some kids who have physical limitations that are more or less related to their dental hygiene habits like flossing and tooth brushing.

But the good side of the picture is that the dental health measures for kids with special needs have improved over the years. So, parents have many options of helping their children maintain healthy smile.

It is best to consult a pediatric dentist for your child as these are trained professionals who understand any ways for dealing with the dental concerns of special kids. Remember, skipping or putting off dental visits isn’t good for your child and may cause severe oral health concerns.


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Wisdom teeth which are actually third molar teeth, last in line, on both sides of the upper and lower jaws. The usual eruption time of wisdom teeth is between the ages of 14 to 18 years.

The name is just a misnomer as not an iota of wisdom is associated with the eruption or presence of wisdom teeth; rather these teeth tend to bring trouble at times. As they are erupting late and the jaw is already crowded, there is often little room for wisdom teeth. This results in incomplete eruptions, eruptions staying within the gums or other tooth problems. When they fail to erupt out of the gums, the condition is known as impacted teeth.

Impacted teeth may remain silent without causing any trouble but can cause problems in the form of infection of the gum or bone. In order to avoid trouble with wisdom teeth, regular dental visits are necessary. The dentist can predict even before their eruption that there is enough room for them on the jaw. The ideal approach typically is getting them removed before they become a source of trouble.

The removal of wisdom teeth can be performed by the dentist in his clinic as an out-patient procedure. All four wisdom teeth can be removed in one go and the procedure is completed in an hour.


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Dental bonding has its own limitations due to which it is considered suitable only for small cosmetic changes, for temporary correction of cosmetic problems as well as for teeth correction in low bite pressure areas.

The Good

  • Dental bonding is the most common and easy procedure in cosmetic dentistry.
  • The procedure can be performed in the dental clinic.
  • Usually anesthesia is not required unless the teeth are decayed.
  • The procedure can be completed in a single visit to the dental clinic unless several teeth are involved.
  • During the procedure, very little or no dental enamel is removed.
  • The duration of the procedure is between 30 to 40 minutes.
  • It is not an expensive procedure.


Some Considerations

  • The dental bonding material is not very strong as compared to other procedures.
  • As compared to crowns, veneers etc. dental bonding can easily chip off or break.
  • Dental bonding is not a long lasting procedure and may need replacement in a few years.
  • The material used in dental bonding is somewhat stain resistant but when compared with crowns, the stain resisting property is inferior.
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